1. Any impure water whereby all three of its qualities, i.e. taste, smell and colour, have changed because of some impurity cannot be used under any circumstances. It cannot be given to animals for drinking purposes, nor can it be used to prepare mud for building or plastering. If all three qualities have not changed, it could be given to animals, could be used for building purposes, and could also be used for watering in the house. However, mud of this sort should not be used to plaster the walls of the musjid.

2. The sea, rivers, that pond which is not on some private property, and that well which has been made waqf (given in Allah’s name) – the water of all these can be used by the general public. No one has the right to stop anyone from using water from these places, nor does anyone have the right to use it in such a way that it causes harm to the general public. For example, a person digs a canal from a river or pond and draws water from it in such a way that it becomes dry, or there is the fear of flooding a tract of land or village. To use it in such a way is not proper, and everyone has the right to stop him from this improper way.

3. A person has a well, fountain, pond, or spring on his private property. He cannot stop others from doing the following: drinking water from there, giving water to their animals, making wudu, ghusl or washing clothes, and filling buckets in order to water their trees and gardens. The reason for this is that everyone has a right in it. However, if on account of there being too many animals, there is a fear that the water will get finished, or the pond will get damaged; then he has the right to stop them. If he wishes to stop anyone, they will have to see whether they could get their work done by obtaining water from elsewhere, (eg. there is another well within 1.6 kilometres and it is not on any private property); or the work will not get done and they will have problems. If their work could get done from some other place, well and good. If not, the owner will be told that he should allow this person to draw water on the condition that he will not break the well, etc. or alternatively, he (i.e. the owner) should draw the water for him or get someone to draw it for him and give it to him. However, the water that he receives for his farm or garden cannot be given to anyone else without the owner’s permission. The owner has the right to stop him from this. The same rule applies to grass and all those plants that have no trunks. However, trees that have trunks are the property of the land-owner.

4. A person wishes to irrigate his farm with water from someone else’s well or reservoir and the owner of these wants to charge him for the water. The Ulama differ as to whether it is permissible or not. The Ulama of Balkh have passed a fatwa that it is permissible.

5. If a person fills sea-water, water of a pond or well, etc. into a utensil of his, he will become the owner of that water. No one can use it without his permission. But if a person becomes extremely restless due to thirst, it will be permissible to take that water forcefully from that person if he knows that the water is more than what the owner will require. However, he will have to give compensation for the water.

6. Wudu and ghusl cannot be made with water that has been kept aside for drinking purposes – as is normally kept aside during summer. However, if a lot of water has been kept aside, it can be used. Water that has been kept aside for wudu can be used for drinking purposes.

7. If one or two bits of a goat’s excreta fall into a well, and they come out whole, then the well will not become impure (najis). Irrespective of whether the well is in a jungle or in a town, or whether it is covered or not.


1. On awakening from sleep, a person should not put his hands in the water (container) until and unless he washes his hands upto his wrists irrespective of whether the hands are pure or impure. If water has been kept in a small container, such as a pitcher or jug, then it should be carried with the left hand and poured onto the right hand and washed three times. Thereafter, the utensil should be taken into the right hand and the left hand should be washed three times. If the water is not kept in a small container, but in a big drum, etc., then it should be taken out with a small utensil, such as a jug. Care should be taken that the fingers do not touch the water. If there is no small utensil, then water should be taken out with the palm of the left hand. As far as possible, very little of the fingers should be put in the water. On taking out the water, first the right hand should be washed, and thereafter, as much of the right hand can be put in the water. On taking out water, the left hand should be washed. This method of washing the hands is only permissible if the hands are not impure. If they are impure, then under no condition should the hands be put in the drum. Water should be taken out in such a way that it does not become impure. For example, a clean handkerchief could be dipped in the water and whatever comes onto the handkie could be used to purify the hands. Alternatively, any other possible method could be used to purify them.

2. It is sunnah to make istinja of those impurities emitted from the anterior or posterior private parts.

3. If the impurity does not stick to the sides (or anywhere else), and a person does not use water for istinja, but instead uses pure stones or lumps of clay, and wipes in such a way that the impurity goes away and the body gets clean; then this will also be permissible. But this method is contrary to purity consciousness. If there is no water or a shortage of it, then there is no alternative but to cleanse oneself in this way.

4. There is no special method for using stones. But care should be taken that the impurity does not spread and the body gets thoroughly cleaned.

5. After having made istinja with stones, it is sunnat to

make istinja with water. But if the impurity spreads more than the size of a fifty cents coin, it will be wajib to wash with water. Without washing, salaat will not be valid. If the impurity has not spread, then even after purifying with stones alone, salaat will be valid, but this is contrary to the sunnat.

6. When making istinja with water, first the hands upto the wrists should be washed. Thereafter go to a secluded spot, and after loosening the clothes, sit down. Wash until you are thoroughly satisfied that the body is clean. But if a person is always in doubt and he uses a lot of water, and still he is not fully satisfied, then he should wash three or seven times and not more than this.

7. If a secluded place cannot be found, then for the sake of making istinja with water, one should not expose one’s private parts, neither to women nor men. In such a case, istinja should not be made with water (but stones). Salaat should be offered without having made istinja (with water). This is because the exposing of one’s body is a major sin.

8. Making istinja with the following objects is a sin and prohibited, and should be abstained from: bones, impurities such as cow-dung and droppings of goats, coal, coarse limestone, glass, baked bricks, edibles, paper, etc. It is also sinful to make istinja with the right hand. But if someone does this, the body will be cleaned.

9. It is prohibited to stand and urinate.

10. It is prohibited to face or turn one’s back towards the qiblah when passing stool or urinating.

11. It is also prohibited and makruh to make small children to face the qiblah and pass stool or urinate.

12. It is permissible to use the left-over water of istinja for wudu. It is also permissible to use the left over water of wudu for istinja, but not to do so is better.

13. When entering the toilet, Bismillah should be read outside, and then the following dua should be read:

“Allahumma inni a’udhu bika minal khubusi wal khabaa’is.”

Translation: “O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the impure male and female jinn.”

One should not enter the toilet bare-headed. If one is wearing any ring, etc. on which is the name of Allah or His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, it should be removed. One should enter with the left foot. Allah’s name should not be taken inside. If one sneezes, then Alhamdulillah should be recited in the heart only and nothing should be said with the tongue. Nor should one talk or say anything in the toilet. When leaving the toilet, one should step out with the right foot first. After leaving the toilet, the following dua should be read:

“Ghufraanaka, alhamdulillahil lazi az’haba anni al-adha wa aafaani.”

Translation: “I seek Your forgiveness, O Allah! Praise be to Allah who has removed from me this discomfort and granted me tranquility.”

After making istinja, the left hand should rubbed on the ground or washed with sand (or soap).

Things that one should abstain from when passing stool or urinating

1. To talk.

2. To cough unnecessarily.

3. To read some verse of the Quran, Hadith, or respected thing.

4. To take something to the toilet on which the following things are written: the name of Allah, any prophet, any angel, or any respected person; any verse of the Quran, Hadith, or dua. But if these things are in the pocket, or wrapped in a ta’wiz (amulet), then there’s no harm in this.

5. To relieve one’s self in a standing or lying down position without any genuine excuse.

6. To remove all the clothes and relieve one’s self completely naked.

7. To make istinja with the right hand.

8. To face the moon or sun, or to turn one’s back towards them while one is passing stool or urinating is makruh. It is also makruh to do the same on the bank of a river, pond, etc. even if the impurity does not fall inside. Similarly, it is makruh to do this under trees in whose shade people sit, or under fruit and flowering trees where people sit in winter in order to get some sunshine. It is makruh tahrimi (extremely detestable) to do this in the following places: among animals, very close to the musjid or eid-gah whereby the foul smell disturbs the musallis, in a grave yard, at a place where people make wudu or ghusl, on the road, in the direction of the wind, in a hole, on the road-side, near a caravan or some gathering. In other words, it is makruh to relieve one’s self in such a place where people move around and thereby cause them discomfort; and also in such a place where the impurity can flow back towards the person.

Unsuitable items for instinja

1. Bones, edibles, excreta and all impure substances.

2. That stone or clay which has already been used for istinja.

3. Baked bricks, small pieces of broken earthenware, glass, coal, limestone, steel, silver, gold, etc.

4. Those things that do not clean impurities, such as vinegar.

5. Those things that are eaten by animals, such as straw and grass.

6. Those things that are of value, irrespective of whether they are of little or great value, such as clothing or the extract of some plants.

7. Parts of a human, such as hair, bone, meat.

8. The mat, dirt, or broom of a musjid.

9. The leaves of trees.

10. Paper, irrespective of whether something is written on it or not (this excludes toilet paper).

11. Zam zam water.

12. Someone else’s possessions without their permission, irrespective of whether it be water, clothing, or anything else.

13. Cotton and all similar things from which humans and their animals derive benefit.

Suitable items for istinja

1. Water.

2. Clods of earth.

3. Stones.

4. Clothes that have no value (rags).

5. All those things that are pure, that can remove impurities, that are not regarded as possessions, and are not respected.


1. Najaasat (impurity) is of two kinds: one that is very thick or hard, and even if a little touches a person, it will have to be washed. This najaasat is called najaasat-e-ghaleezah (heavy impurity). The other is a little less and lighter, and is called najaasat-e-khafeefah (lighter impurity).

2. The following substances are regarded as najaasat-e-ghaleezah:

blood; stool, urine and semen of humans; intoxicating drinks; the excreta and urine of cats and dogs; the meat, hair, bones, and everything else of pigs; the dung of horses, donkeys, mules, cattle, oxen, buffaloes, etc; the droppings of goats and sheep; in other words the excreta of all animals; the droppings of fowls, ducks and wild ducks; and the urine of donkeys, mules and all haraam animals.

3. The stool and urine of a small child that is still being breast-fed is also najaasat-e-ghaleezah.

4. The excreta of haraam birds and the urine of halaal animals, such as goats, cows and buffaloes. The urine of horses is najaasat-e-khafeefah.

5. With the exception of fowls, ducks and wild ducks, the excreta of all other halaal birds such as pigeons, sparrows, etc. is pure. The urine and stool of bats is pure.

6. If a najaasat-e-ghaleezah that is thin and flowing falls on the body or clothes, it will be excused if the area on which it falls is equal to or less than a fifty cents coin in extent. If the person performs his salaat without washing it off, his salaat will be valid. But to refrain from washing it and to continue offering his salaats in this way is makruh. If it is more than a fifty cents coin, then it will not be excused. Salaat will not be valid if it is not washed off.

If a najaasat-e-ghaleezah is thick and solid, for example stool or the excreta of fowls, etc. and its weight is equal to or less than about 4 grams, then performing salaat without washing it off will be valid. But if it is more than this weight, salaat will not be valid.

7. Najaasat-e-khafeefah falls on the body or clothing. If it is less than a quarter of the area on which it fell, it will be excused. But if it is equal to a quarter or more, it will not be excused. In other words, if it falls on one sleeve, it is less than a quarter of that sleeve. If it falls on one panel of a shirt, it is less than a quarter of it. If it falls on a scarf, it is less than a quarter of that scarf. Only if it is less than a quarter of all these it will be excused.

Similarly, if the najaasat-e-khafeefah falls on one hand or on a leg, then if it is less than a quarter of that hand or leg, salaat will be valid if it is not washed. In other words, on whichever limb the najaasat falls, less than a quarter of that limb will be considered. If it is equal to a quarter or more, then it will not be excused. It will have to be washed. Salaat that is performed without washing it will not be valid.

8. The water in which najaasat-e-ghaleezah falls also becomes najas-e-ghaleez; and the water in which najaasat-e-khafeefah falls also becomes najas-e-khafeef.

9. Impure oil fell on one’s clothing but the extent of it was less than three centimetres in diameter. However, after some time it spread and became more than three centimetres in diameter. As long as it was less, it will be excused. But once it spreads beyond the limit, it will not be excused. Washing it off will be wajib. If it is not washed off, salaat will not be valid.

10. The blood of fish is not impure. There is no harm if it falls on a person. The same applies to the blood of flies, bugs and mosquitos.

11. If a drop of urine equal to the eye of a needle falls, and it cannot be seen except after very careful examination, then there’s no harm in it. It is not obligatory to wash it off, but to do so is preferable.

12. If a najaasat which can be seen, such as stool or blood, falls on the clothing, it should be washed until the najaasat is removed and no stain remains. There is no limit to the number of times it should be washed – the moment the najaasat is removed, it will become pure. The same rule applies when it falls on the body.

However, if the najaasat is removed in the first instance, it will be better to wash it two more times. And if it is removed in the second time, it will be better to wash it one more time. In other words, it is preferable to wash it three times.

13. If the najaasat is such that despite washing it several times and despite it being removed, the foul smell still remains or some stain is still there. Even in this instance, the clothing will be purified. It is not necessary to use any soap or detergents in order to get rid of the smell or stain.

14. If any impurity similar to urine which cannot be seen, falls on the clothing; then it should be washed three times. Each time that it is washed, the water should be squeezed out of it. After washing it the third time, the cloth should be wrung with full force – only then will it be purified. If it is not wrung with full force, the cloth will not be purified.

15. If any impurity falls on such a thing which cannot be wrung or squeezed, such as a bed, mat, jewellery, sand, utensils, bottles, shoes, etc., then the method of purifying these things is as follows: the item should be washed once and then the person should wait. When the water stops dripping from it, it should be washed a second time. When the water stops dripping, it should be washed a third time. In this way it will be purified.

16. If anything is thin and pure like water, it can also be used to wash off any impurity. If a person uses rose-water, or the extract of any herb, or vinegar; even then that thing will be purified. However, it is not permissible to use ghee, oil, milk and other similar substances which are sticky or fatty. That thing will remain impure.

17. Semen fell on the body or clothes and got dried. The body and clothes can be purified by scraping it off and rubbing it thoroughly. But if it has not dried as yet, it will have to be washed. But if a person did not wash himself after passing urine, and at that time semen came out; it will not become purified by rubbing it off. It will have to be washed.

18. If najaasat which can be seen, eg. dung, stool, blood, semen, etc., falls on one’s shoes or leather socks, it could be removed and purified by rubbing it thoroughly on the ground. Similarly, it can also be purified by scraping it off. Even if it is not dry, and it is thoroughly scraped and rubbed off to such an extent that no sign of the najaasat remains, it will be purified.

19. If any najaasat like urine which is not seen, falls on the shoes or leather socks, then it cannot be purified except by washing.

20. As for clothing and the body, these can only be purified by washing. This is irrespective of whether the najaasat can be seen or not.

21. If mirrors, knives, gold and silver jewellery, copper, brass, steel, etc. become impure, they can be purified by wiping them thoroughly, or scraping them, or rubbing them with sand. But if these items have been engraved, they cannot be purified except by washing.

22. Some najaasat fell on the ground and got dried in such a way that there is no sign of it – there is no stain nor any foul smell of that najaasat. If it gets dry in this way, the ground will be pure. However, tayammum on such a piece of ground will not be permissible. However, it will be permissible to perform salaat there. The same rule applies to bricks and stones that have been embedded with limestone or mortar into the ground in such a way that these cannot be removed except by digging them out. That is, once the najaasat dries and no sign of it remains, they will be purified, but tayammum will not be permissible.

23. Those bricks that have just been placed on the ground without being embedded with lime or cement will not get purified with the drying of the najaasat. They will have to be washed.

24. Grass which is growing on the ground also becomes purified with the drying and disappearance of the najaasat. But if the grass is cut, it will not be purified without washing.

25. If impure knives, earthen and copper utensils are placed on a blazing fire, they will also get purified.

26. There was some impurity on one’s hand. Someone removed this najaasat by licking it off three times. It will become purified, but it is prohibited to lick it. A child vomitted milk on one’s chest, and thereafter it licked the vomit and drank it up. The chest will be purified.

27. If an unused earthenware utensil becomes impure, and it is such that it absorbs the impurity, then it will not become purified by merely washing it. Instead, it should be filled with water and when traces of the impurity appear in the water, the utensil should be emptied. It should be filled again, and emptied again. This should be continuously done until no sign of the impurity remains – neither its colour nor its smell. Only then will it be purified.

28. The utensils which a potter makes with impure clay will remain impure as long as they are unbaked. Once they get baked, they will become pure.

29. Honey, syrup, ghee or oil became impure. Whatever the amount may be, add the same amount or more of water to it and keep it to boil. Once the water has evaporated, add more water and do the same three times. In this way it will get purified.

Alternatively, add the same amount of water and stir the contents. Once it comes on top of the water, remove it in some way or another. Repeat the process three times and it will be purified. If the ghee is gone hard, add water to it and heat it. Once it melts, remove it.

30. Clothes were dyed in an impure dye. It should be washed until clean water begins to come out of it. It will now be purified, irrespective of whether the dye comes out of the clothes or not. However it is preferable to wash it at least three times.

31. The ashes of dung-cakes, droppings of goats and other impure things are pure. Their smoke is also pure. If it comes onto one’s bread, there is no harm in it.

32. One corner of a mat is impure and the balance of it is pure. It will be permissible to offer salaat in the corner that is pure.

33. Land that has been plastered by dung is impure. Salaat on it is not permissible without having laid some pure thing over it.

34. If the land which has been plastered by dung is dry, then it is permissible to spread even a wet cloth over it and offer salaat. But it should not be so wet that some soil from that ground comes onto one’s clothing.

35. After having washed his feet, a person walked bare-footed on some impure place and his foot-prints were visible on that place. His feet will not become impure. However, if due to the wet feet, the ground gets so wet, that some sand or impurity from that ground comes onto the feet; then they will become impure.

36. A person slept on an impure carpet and due to perspiration his clothes became damp. The same rule applies here, i.e. his clothes and body will not become impure. However, if they get so wet that some impurity from the carpet gets onto his clothes or body, they will be rendered impure.

37. A woman applied impure henna (mehendi) on her hands or feet. By washing them thoroughly until clean water flows out of them, the hands and feet will be purified. It is not obligatory to remove the colour.

38. A person applied surmah (antimony) or kajal (eye-pencil) which was impure. It is not necessary to wipe or wash it off. However, if it spreads and comes out of the eye, it will be obligatory to wash it.

39. If one applied impure oil onto one’s head or body, then according to the normal procedure, it should be washed off three times. It is not necessary to remove it by putting soap or any such thing.

40. A dog put its mouth in flour or a monkey ate some of it. Whatever portion of the flour got dirty should be removed. It is permissible to eat the rest of it. If the flour was dry, then wherever its saliva is, that place should be removed. The balance of it is pure.

41. The saliva of a dog is impure, but the dog itself is not impure. So if a dog touches anyone’s body or clothes, they will not become impure irrespective of whether the dog’s body is dry or wet. However, it will be a different case if there is some najaasat on the dog’s body.

42. A person passed wind at a time when his underclothing were wet. His clothing will not become impure by passing wind in such a state.

43. The clothes that got wet with impure water were wrapped with clean clothes. The wetness from the impure clothes got into the clean clothes, but no colour or smell of the impurity got into them. If these clean clothes got so wet that by wringing them one or two drops of water fall down, or at the time of wringing them, the hands get wet – then these clean clothes will also become impure. However, if they are not so wet, they will remain pure. And if the clothes that got wet with some specific impurity such as urine, were wrapped with clean clothes, then even if a little dampness or smell of those clothes gets into the clean clothes, they will also become impure.

44. A wooden plank is impure on one side and pure on the other side. If it is so thick that it can be sawed off in the centre, he can turn it over and perform salaat on the pure side. But if it is not so thick, it will not be permissible.

45. A particular cloth is double-folded – one fold is impure and the other is pure. If both the folds are not stitched, it will be permissible to offer salaat on the fold that is pure. But if both folds are stitched, salaat will not be permissible even on the fold that is pure.

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